JUNGLE JUSTICE: A TWO WAY EVIL Why do people choose mob rule over the judicial system?

Stand Against Jungle JusticeJungle justice or extrajudicial killings are not new, they are traceable to ancient laws that permitted such form of justice. It usually took the form of stone throwing or death by burning, depending on the crime committed. One can consider this a character of the uncivilized method of justice which lacked human rights in the manner we have today. Those days were characterized by authoritarian regimes, with Emperors who consolidated power in provinces and oppressed the people. Such emperors followed the Machiavelli model – “it is better to be feared than to be loved”.
With the increasing presence of democratic government and the existence of a more literate society, what then represents civilization if we still practice jungle justice? We can justify the use of jungle justice by the lack of exposure to the modern justice system in ancient. In those days, the use of mobbing was in line with the laws created. However, in this century, we have no excuse for the use of jungle justice, it is simply a deliberate negligence of the legal system of fair trial. If the mob behave in an uncivilized manner what are the reasons behind such acts.
Mob rule has become rampant in the Nigerian society. When people get hold of a criminal, they lynch them to death without taking them to the state security officers for necessary trial and court proceedings. Such act is also called extrajudicial killings or “jungle justice”. This inhumane act bears one of its root cause from poverty, which in turn has led to armed robbery, kidnapping, burglary, human rituals, and cultism. Such acts get the society weary and the people become aggressive and therefore, seek to take the life of suspects and deviants. The recent Badoo boys lynching in Ikorodu, and the 2012 lynching of students in Aluu – River State are clear examples
Lack of trust in the Nigerian Justice System
There is a deficiency in the Nigerian judiciary because the people do not trust the legal administrators – the judges, lawyers, security officers and the Nigerian Police Force. For example, justice is usually perverted when criminals are handed to the Police and bailed out by their evil network. Those criminals would yet, go on to continue causing havoc in the society. Hence, the lack of trust in the system has made the people look for other means of justice like the Jungle justice. The situation is even more complicated with the rich using their wealth to buy justice and in turn overriding the rights of the poor.
Revenge syndrome incentive
Most of the people that have been engaging in mob rule are victims of the evil perpetuated in the society. They include those whose family members have been kidnapped; properties have been stolen; houses have been burgled and those who have suffered from psychological fear of the ongoing crimes in the society. For those who do not suffer one of this, they are included in the whole society is victimized because everyone becomes a suspect. Since the government security and justice system is not effective with respect to this, they find another means to justice. This is because the mob is angry, and the goal of every angry mob is revenge. Revenge is no justice, it’s a two-way evil, and it a return to the state of lawlessness.
More problems
As the mob rule continues to become the tool of justice in the society, it has extended to small cases like theft committed by a child in order to feed his belly. The society treats such case like they would treat every high network criminal activity. There has been a case of killing a child because he stole cassava flakes – Garri. It shows that the jungle justice is blind to “juvenile delinquency” and this shows that there is no measure of the justice being applied to mob rule; all victims are lynched. Even when the victims have lost consciousness, the mob proceed to burning them. This is no justice system, it is barbaric, uncivilized and it’s a two-way evil that makes no right.
Way Forward
Niccolo Machiavelli would encourage the government to make sure it is in charge of its province and like John Locke would advise, the people must be protected as well as their properties even their trust in government must not be shaking. Therefore the Nigerian government at all levels should reach for an improvement in the justice system that has caused mob rule. Also, the civil society organizations can bridge the gap between the government and the people by educating people to a humane form of justice.


Dear Leader Kim Jong-un,

North Korea

The Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) test carried out recently has been threatening to many, it has also made many countries more respectful and fearful of North Korea. Of course, to an extent what its leader Kim Jong-un actual intentions are, are gradually surfacing. Although the world at large would face the consequences of this action, the land and people of North Korea are in fact the first recipient of the effect of the recent ICBM tests.

The test does not mean a war has begun but it has some effects. First, the people of North Korea almost certainly live in a high degree of unrest and psychological shock. The activities of testing missiles rather than the government focusing on ways to make North Korea a key participator in the global trade has the tendency to make citizens feel they have nothing worthwhile to live for other than prepare for war.  Also, the environmental and health impact on the people is demeaning. Remember, once a nuclear is tested, radioactive are released and they contaminate the environment and causes cancer for the people.  We see here that testing missiles are a quintessential double-edged sword. Of course causing a threat to the world but also affecting the country deploring it. Hence, no one on wins in this scenario.

In the 21st century, the priority of every nation should be the quest for improving the lives of its people and not making efforts to create a dominating image to the world when the country itself is not in order. Since the early 1960s, no economic statistics have been published by North Korea. However, under-research reveals that North Korea spends possibly more than 20 percent of its GDP on its military. Yet, millions of citizens suffer electricity blackouts and an insufficient amount of food. (CIA World Fact Book). In the country, there is no access to food like we have elsewhere. Citizens get food through the state and the food is given based on a certain ratio. Of course, such a situation has resulted in the loss of lives. According to the UNICEF report in 2011, an estimated number of six million people did not have enough food to eat. This figure represented a quarter of its population and more dehumanizing is that children constituted a million of this figure. (UNICEF, 2011). Authenticating this report is the World Food Programme which said that one in every 3 children in North Korea is chronically malnourished.

Just imagine that there was a fire outbreak inside your house and shortly after another fire outbreak began a few miles away from the house. If you are giving an opportunity to choose one of the outbreak to stop, which would you choose? I bet you’ll choose the fire outbreak inside the house considering all the value you have within. How does this relate to North Korea? First, Citizens are the most valuable asset of a state. Hence, it’s important Leader recognizes that improving the quality of lives of North Koreans is far more beneficial than dispensing its energy and funds on nuclear tests. What’s the point of spending funds in building missiles when the situation within the country is filled with economic and political chaos? This also goes out for other nations taking similar moves, for countries in that circle you need to pause and analyze the point you intend to prove in spending so much on military capabilities when the citizens in the country are not in the best state?

Dailyira poses that before any nation embarks on any huge investment in military defence, it is imperative to pause and reconsider using such funds in embarking on projects that can improve the conditions of the people. We end by emphasizing that internal stability is more profiting than having external military might.

You’re at Risk of Being Poisoned

The alarming issue we were faced with during the course of the week is rooted in Mosul – Iraq. Contaminated foods given to the people in the refugee camps only complicates the situation facing this region. You know, Dailyira finds it appalling to realize that this situation had to occur in spite of the limited medical service available. To start with, there are limited hospitals and medical personnel that can carter for the people that have been affected by the airstrikes in the fight against ISIS. Hence, the food poisoning only entangles the medical situation in the region as many, actually as much as 750 people were under severe condition and had to be rushed to the hospital. The United Nations Refugee Agency spokesperson – Andrej Mahecic expressed that such a tragic incidence had to happen to people who had been through a lot. The people of Iraq and generally people in refugee camps have been through a lot as terrorist activities occur. The alarm of bombs and the tanks of blood that have spilled has had an enormous effect in the emotional conditions of people in this regions. Therefore, the least this people need is “food poisoning”, a matter that can be avoided if hygiene is prioritised.

It’s time to stop the blame game of whether the Qatari Charity Organisation or other U.K charity organisation are responsible for the food poisoning. Whatever the complications that may have gone wrong for the agencies who supplied the food as a means of aids, there is an important lesson to learn from to avoid any subsequent reoccurrence. This lesson emanates from the imperative to clarify that refugee camps are not a dumping ground where spoils and unhygienic foods can be dropped. Hence, all foods provided must be properly prepared under the right conditions. Dailyira opines that things would be a lot better if whoever manages the food prepared for refugees imagine that he would also eat from the food. If such a person cannot eat the food then it would remain utterly unacceptable to have such meals supplied.

What Betrayal Actually Feels like

Have you ever been betrayed? Reminiscing on those days in high school with a group of friends. On one of those occasions, there was a rumour about you engaging in an unacceptable manner. While you placed your head on the table during lunch hour, one after the other some of your friends approached you to inform you that they were no longer interested in being friends with you.

Well, today Qatar happens to be you and Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, the Maldives, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Yemen and Libya are the friends that called off the relationship. These states cut off ties with Qatar because they suspect that Qatar support terrorist activities and groups. There is an irony in this allegation because if Qatar encouraged terrorism in its country, why does it send troops in large numbers to fight terrorist groups in Libya? Also, what this act has shown is that terrorism has become a concern for Arab states and not just America and Europe alone.

This case would be no big deal without the suffering likely to hit Qatar citizens. First, although Qatar is blessed with an abundance of gas and oil. Neither men, women nor children can feed on gas and oil, hence, Qatar relies on imports to feed its people. Particularly, Saudi Arabia supply items like cheese, milk, chicken and egg to Qatar. Adding to this is the “Qatar Airways”- a leading airline, for it to have gained such prominence it uses the airbase of these countries who recently cut ties with Qatar. This would mean longer distances and an increase in fuel usage for Qatar airways.

Breaking ties with Qatar by these states is like a coin which has two sides. On the other side, the countries who have broken ties with Qatar face an issue of containing an “Iran-Qatar” alliance. Such an alliance would strengthen Iran, of which every state fears what the consequence of a strengthened Iran might be. Already, Iran has taken moves of leveraging on this fractured relationship between Qatar and the Gulf Countries by promising to supply food to Qatar.

So what would you do if you were Qatar – yield to what these states wants you to do or seek ways to form new relationships with other countries like Iran?

This rising issue has led Dailyira to draw out a lesson in international relations which is the “Power of allies”, were one states action compels its allies to act similarly. Initially it was Bahrain who announced to break ties and in less than 20 minutes Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, the Maldives and Libya followed. Dailyira does not support allies isolating a state in order to compel the state to act against its will. We must remember that, a state is not made of boundaries and borders alone but also people. The conditionality placed on Qatar has adverse effect on its citizens as well. UAE, for example has ordered all Qatar citizens to leave her country within 14 days.

Liberalism in Brief

Often times we here statements like, ‘Obama is more liberal than Trump’, sometimes you’re lost because you don’t understand what it means to be liberal. The idea behind being ‘liberal’ is gotten from the liberalism school of thought. This article would help international relations students and everyone at large to understand Liberalism
Liberalism is a foremost contesting theory of international relations theory. To set a backdrop, a theory of international relations is a set of idea that give an explanation of how the international system works. Unlike an ideology, a theory is usually backed by empirical evidences. Simply put, theories are foundations in which we rest issues in international relations as they occurs or put it differently, theories are the specs we wear to see events.Liberalism stands as a prominent theory just like other contending theories like realism, constructivism and Marxism. In the 1970’s, liberalism developed as many scholars like began arguing that realism; the western thought that had dominated world politics since the renaissance with its focus on state power, unitary decision making and national interest had become outdated.

Following the end of the cold war and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, scholars wrote to explain what would characterise the post-cold war era. Samuel Huntington saw liberalism as a predominantly European phenomenon and envisaged conflict with other civilization. In contrast, Francis Fukuyama repeatedly argued that liberalism represented the final stage in human political evolution. Not denying that the world is harsh and dangerous, liberals argue that the consequence of exercising military power often overweigh many benefit and international cooperation is at the interest of every state. For liberals, yes, military power is a form of power but it is not the only form of power, as economic and social power matter a great deal.

Continuing, liberalism holds the opinion that although different states have different primary interest, international rules and organisations can foster cooperation, prosperity and trust. Liberal theorist reject the presumption of realist that international relations is a zero-sim game, rather, they view them as a pattern of interaction with the potential of mutual gains. Liberalism is a form of thought that is easily taken for granted if not careful analysed. There exist compelling accounts of liberalism not only in the academy but outside the academy, some journalist have written in defence of liberal ideas. Most, in their writings project the idea that liberalism, far from being problematic, is a perfect doctrine. Liberalism, for sure, is not without critics. Many have argued that conflicts and war would always be prevalent. However, liberals pose that 99.9% of time if we look careful we can find many alternatives to war and military actions.
What’s your view, who do you think is more liberal Trump or Obama?

Let’s Discuss Turkey…

Not neglecting the recent fringes between Turkey and its allies. It is against this trend that dailyira creates a background into the nitty gritty of Turkey’s proposed presidential system of government.

Under the proposed presidential system, the judiciary is expected to act on the condition of impartiality. Transition of power from one government to another is done smoothly and orderly as elections will be held on the same day every five years. What is fascinating about this system of government is the opportunity given to youths to participate in government. The age requirement to stand as a candidate in an election is reduced from 25 to 18. Currently, a candidate in an election must have to complete a compulsory military service but under the proposed presidential system such requirements are abolished. Further, the military is distinguished from political appointments as individuals within the military are ineligible to run for election. The authority of the military court is also reduced to investigating actions of soldiers alone.

As beneficial as this system poses, it has been received with heavy criticism from opposition parties, nongovernmental organizations and allies like Germany, Austria and Netherland. The reason behind this is because the power of the parliament to scrutinize ministers and hold government accountable are abolished under the presidential system; the president becomes both the head of state and the head of government which gives him the power to appoint and sack ministers. With this comes the possibility of the president to misuse power against the right of citizens.

There have been uproarious movement as the Turkish government have been denied a platform to campaign in Germany, Austria and Netherland. President Erdogan has accused these states of having “Nazi” tendencies. However, it is pertinent to emphasize that overseas election campaigning even in diplomatic missions, is illegal under Turkish law. Hence, a campaign in any overseas country which President Erdogan has pressed for would be a breach of the law.

21st Century Episode of Famine 

 The hard earned independence from Sudan in July 2011 raised expectations that following the independence of South Sudan from Sudan, the country would be peaceful and stable. This expectations have been shattered as the country is now crippled with massive humanitarian crisis. Just when you thought the world has reached a high level of food sustainability, episodes of famine still erodes in Africa. Overwhelming as it may read, a state of famine has been declared in South Sudan. This is the first to be announced since 2011. The United Nations and the government reported over 100,000 people faces starvation, with a million more at the edge of famine. Effort to distribute relief items has proved futile because the government has been stiff to open itself to cooperating with the UN and other charity organization.

How did South Sudan get here?

Uprising in the country began in December 2013. President Kiir raised accusations against his then Deputy president Riek Marchar when he claimed that Marchar attempted a coup d’etat. Marchar denounced the allegation and in response, he left to lead the Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) – in opposition. Fighting broke out between the Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Sudan People Liberation Movement (SPLM) – in opposition. Since then, violence has spread across the nation like a wildfire. Ethnic clashes between President Kiir ethnic group – Dinka, and that of his counterpart, Marchar’s ethnic group – Neur, has increased the tension in South Sudan.

The worst massacre in South Sudan occurred on 15th April 2014 in the town of Bentiu, located in the north of South Sudan. The SPLM army went from place to place, from church to mosque to hospital, separating people by ethnicity and religion and shooting the ones left behind. The reported death toll for this massacre exceeded 400 people.

So far, an estimated number of 300,000 people have been killed and more than 3.5 million people have been displaced in a country of about 12 million. The continuing conflict and unrest in the country has made transition of power impossible. The general election scheduled for 9th July 2015 failed to occur. Adding to this is the country lacks a permanent constitution.

As a result of the political instability, many of her citizens have fled to neighboring countries like Uganda, Kenya and Sudan. South Sudanese made up the largest contingent among the refugee Olympic team who competed under the Olympic flag.

Why is food an issue?

South Sudan is one of the least developed countries in the world. While few larger cities have experienced some development, majority of the country is rural. Fighting in the agricultural heart in the south of the country has increased starvation in South Sudan. People who would normally grow crops have been forced to flee from their lands. As the violence continues, families stay away from home and are unable to plant seeds, prepare the land or plan to harvest their crops. Further, traders in food items are unable to restock goods because they fear getting attacked while transporting food supplies. To compound this challenges, the little food available are sold at an exorbitant price which majority cannot afford. South Sudan has prospects for a striving agricultural industry but this aspect has been relegated amid violence, poor infrastructure and lack of technological advancement. These challenges has made growing sufficient food for consumption difficult.

A call for action comes day after day, not only for South Sudan but other African states facing famine. The U.N children agency said almost 1.4 million children suffering severe malnutrition have tendencies to die this year. Aljazera news reported that in Yemen, where war has been raging for nearly two years, 462,000 children are suffering from malnutrition while 450,000 children are severely malnourished in northeast Nigeria. Further, Drought in Somalia has left 185,000 children on the brink of famine but that figure is expected to reach 270,000 over the next few months, said UNICEF. More attention has to be given to these states not only through donation and distribution of relief materials but also critically look into these states to find the root cause of the current situation.